This post is more about the CLR and dependency management than it is about Rx. However at this point in Rx’s lifecycle it seems relevant to comment on. The same principles could obviously be applied to open source projects et. al.

I have recently heard of an interesting situation that no-doubt has proved troublesome to people before. This problem is particularly interesting with Rx and it’s recent rate of versions. If you are trying to incorporate Rx into a library of yours and you then want to publish that library, you are effectively forcing users to use the same version of Rx that you do. Considering that a version of Rx comes out say every two months and that often there are breaking changes, this can create quite a mess. It is also made more interesting that up until recently they have not specified if a release was experimental or considered stable.

To provide an example to better understand my particular point; imagine you have a library that wraps a messaging platform. You want to avoid the use of Events and APM, and expose things via IObservable. You feel happy that IObservable is exposed natively in .NET 4 so you should not have to expose your implementations of Rx. You do however, want to use Rx as it has features you need and don’t want to (re-)write yourself. Your standard approaches to package/deployment are:

  • deploy the parts of the Rx libraries you use with your code. Users can just put them all into a “lib\MyFramework” folder and reference them.
  • excluded the libraries from your code and set Specific Version = False and hope your code will work with the consumer’s version of Rx
  • use a package management tool like Nuget to publish your package and specify the valid versions of Rx your library will work with.
  • rely on things being in the GAC so you can utilise the side-by-side versioning it provides
  • just try and implement the parts of Rx you want and avoid DLL Hell.

I gave this some thought and I think I have come up with a solution that could help library authors protect themselves. While there is the obvious option of using Nuget as part of your dependency management, this does not solve the problem, it just eases the pain. If the customer wants to use the latest version of Rx and you only support the 3 previous versions, your customer is still in some trouble.

The theory i had was that I can specify the specific version of Rx I want to reference in my library, the problem being that it may be named the same as the client’s referenced version. Depending on where their references were built to, they could overwrite each other. It seemed the solution was to embed the dependency into my library.

This turns out to actually be quite easy. If you have a project in visual studio that references your version of Rx, you have to follow these steps:

  1. Ensure you have a file reference (not a project or a GAC reference) to the dependency, in this case System.Reactive.dll
  2. Set the reference to be Specific Version = True
  3. Set the reference Copy Local = False
  4. Embed the dependency into your library. I created a folder in my project called EmbeddedAssemblies. I “Add Existing…” to this folder, navigate to the dependencies (just System.Reactive.dll in this case), and then choose “Add as Link…
  5. Set the “Build Action” of  the newly added link to Embedded Resource
  6. Ensure that the resource is loaded correctly at run time…

The last part of that list proves to be not too hard. You can hook on to the AppDomain.AssemblyResolve event and load your embedded resource. You can return your embedded dependency by reading the byte stream and creating the assembly from it and then returning that in the event handler

internal static class DependencyResolver
  private static int _isSet = 0;

  internal static void Ensure()
    if (Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref _isSet, 1, 0) == 0)
      var thisAssembly = Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly();
      var assemblyName = new AssemblyName(thisAssembly.FullName).Name;
      var embededAssemblyPrefix = assemblyName + ".EmbeddedAssemblies.";

      var myEmbeddedAssemblies =
          .Where(name => name.StartsWith(embededAssemblyPrefix))
          .Select(resourceName =>
                      using (var stream = Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().GetManifestResourceStream(resourceName))
                        var assemblyData = new Byte[stream.Length];
                        stream.Read(assemblyData, 0, assemblyData.Length);
                        return Assembly.Load(assemblyData);
          .ToDictionary(ass => ass.FullName);

      AppDomain.CurrentDomain.AssemblyResolve += (sender, args) =>
                                                      Assembly assemblyToLoad = null;
                                                      myEmbeddedAssemblies.TryGetValue(args.Name, out assemblyToLoad);
                                                      return assemblyToLoad;

You can return null in the event handler to say I don’t know how to load this assembly. This allows others to be able to have a go at loading the assembly in the same way.

Next, to ensure that my embedded dependency resolver is called, I opted to make a call to it in the static constructor of the key types in my library. eg

public class SomeProvider
  static SomeProvider()

  //other stuff goes here...

Have a look at the example code by downloading this zip file

Caveats : This is a thought and the code and concepts are only demo quality. I have not used this in production quality code. I also have not verified that the license allows for this style of packaging.

Further links: